How does a vacuum pump work? – Every Vacuum User Should Know
From commercial needs to decorative finishes, vacuum pumps are very familiar devices across the world. We usually use vacuum pumps for sucking dirt and dust from carpet, floor, and furniture. And in manufacturing industries, people do use the machine for creating vacuum-packed seals or eliminating air out of electric bulbs, and so on.
Based on the pressure ranges, manufacturers produce different types of vacuum pumps, such as primary, booster, and secondary pumps. And following the technical application, there are two major categories of pumps, like the transfer pumps and the trapping pumps.
Furthermore, you may hear the name of the rotary vane, screw, liquid ring, and dry claw vacuum pumps. The designers have designed all of these vacuum pumps with almost the same working principles for various jobs. However, it’s hard to understand by the users how does a vacuum pump work?
Today, in this review, we will try to make you realize the principles of the electromagnetic functions of theses vacuum pumps. So, let’s have a look.
Table of Contents
Vacuum Pumps: Basic Physics of Working Principle
A vacuum pump works by removing air molecules and other gases from the vacuum chamber. And it induces pressure between the low-pressure region and the high-pressure area. The basic guiding principle is that molecules in the air tend to rush from low-pressure to high-pressure areas.
Here, the tornado can be the best example to understand the execution principle of a vacuum pump. You know that when the tornado occurs, the cyclonic air rapidly rushes from the low air pressure region to the high pressure. Regardless of the varied designs, this is the basic physics of the working principle of a vacuum pump.
An Overview of Vacuum Pumps Types, Uses, and Applications Tactics
You have already known that there are many forms of vacuum pumps, but their working theory is the same. The regard to wet or dry pumps, manufacturers applies different technological know-how and operational system.
For instance, the wet pumps require oil or water to generate lubricants while pumping air or gas vacuums. On the contrary, the dry pump is fluid-free, which depends on solid clearances between the static and the rotating parts of the machine.
Here, it’s significant to mention that fluid-contamination is a big issue for the vacuum pumps. In this regard, dry pumps cause less contamination than wet pumps. And you cannot simply change the vacuum system from the wet to the dry one.
Let’s find all of these considerable issues following the vacuum pumps step by step.
Primary Pumps: How do they Work?
Oil Sealed Rotary Vane Pump-Wet and Positive Displacement
Backing or the primary vacuuming pumps can be of rough and low genres, depending on the pressure ranges. The wet and positive displacement vacuum enters the gas inlet, and an eccentrically mounted rotor compresses the gas and finally transfers to the exhaust valve. The spring-loaded valve can discharge gas when excessive atmospheric pressure happens. The operational parts of the particular vacuum are as below.
- Exhaust Outlet and Exhaust Valve
- Pump Oil and Oil Reservoir
- Stator, spring, blade, and rotor
The oil-sealed pump uses oil to seal and cool rotary van when needed. The rotary pump stabilizes pressure using its number of stages and levels of tolerances. Oil sealed vacuum pump can perform with an average pumping speed of 0.7 to 275 m3/h.
Booster Pumps: How do they Work?
Roots Pump-Dry & Positive Displacement
Manufacturers supply booster pumps of two types one is a low-pressure vacuum, and another is a rough-pressure vacuum. Roots pump is a dry displacement booster vacuum pump that removes a large amount of gas to generate a remarkable volume of pressure. It has two lobes mesh to transfer gas in one direction, avoiding counter-rotation and touching one another. The basic parts of the roots pump are as follows.
- Gas-outlet and
- Lobes mesh
However, roots booster pump can have two or more lobes mesh, and it can generate average pumping speed 100,000 m3/h. And it can boost both the pumping speed and the ultimate pressure to offer you the finest vacuuming experience.
Secondary Pumps: How do they Work?
Vapor Diffusion Pumps- Wet & Kinetic Transfer
As a high-velocity heated oil stream pump vapor diffusion transfer kinetic energy to gas molecules from the inlet to the outlet. It ensures reduced pressure to the inlet and excessive pressure to the outlet. Vapor diffusion is a turbo-molecular pump that comprises the following operational devices.
- Oil and gas molecules chamber
- Fourth-stored compression stages
- Water cooling coils
- Boiler and heater
- Oil pumping and backing pump device
The wet and kinetic transfer pump offers maximum performance at a low cost. It’s a highly reliable vacuuming pump for commercial purposes that confirms 10-50000 I/S average pumping speed.
Transfer Pumps: How do they Work?
In the market, transfer pumps are also familiar as kinetic pumps. It has a piston to create momentum, pushing gas around the pumps. And the momentum keeps flowing from the inlet to the outlet of the device. Along with other parts, the piston accelerates gas and air molecules to create an area of low pressure. Later, the air molecules and gas start moving from the lower-pressure region to the higher-pressure area.
- Piston or propeller-like device
- Inlet and outlet valves
- Vacuumed container
When it removes a large volume of air molecules through the outlet valve of the pump, a closure valve works to prevent further entrance of air or gas. And thus, the transfer pumps work better to ensure an excellent vacuuming environment.
Trapping Pumps: How do they Work?
A chemical reaction is an operational system of trapping or capture pumps. And the pump uses the condensation or the thin film produced by the molecules in the air. When the chemical reactions take place inside the vacuum pump, it starts sucking dirt or dust from the surface or carpet.
People use the chemical process pumps in the pharmaceutical industries, process industries, and cooling, heating, and air-conditional plants. This pump is available in the market with multiple suction capacity and head ranges.
Last but not least!
In our daily business, we use vacuum pumps to meet different needs like medical suction, decorative finishes, trash compacting, glass coating, and sewage systems. But we don’t know how a vacuum pump operates. And that’s why, sometimes, it becomes hassling to handle the device with due care.
We hope this review has answered your question, “how does a vacuum pump work?” Have a happy day!